Corporate law is civil
Corporate law is civil law. It’s not generally not criminal law. When there are disputes, the corporation’s officials can go to the appropriate civil court in order to resolve the dispute. Of course, officers and employees can still face criminal liability for fraud and other criminal acts. However, the laws that govern the formation and operation of corporations are generally a civil body of law with civil remedies
Widely available and user-friendly corporate law enables business participants to possess these four legal characteristics and thus transact as businesses. Thus, corporate law is a response to three endemic opportunism: conflicts between managers and shareholders, between controlling and non-controlling shareholders; and between shareholders and other contractual counterparts (including creditors and employees).
A corporation may accurately be called a company; however, a company should not necessarily be called a corporation, which has distinct characteristics. In the United States, a company may or may not be a separate legal entity, and is often used synonymous with “firm” or “business.” According to Black’s Law Dictionary, in America a company means “a corporation — or, less commonly, an association, partnership or union — that carries on industrial enterprise.” Other types of business associations can include partnerships (in the UK governed by the Partnership Act 1890), or trusts (Such as a pension fund), or companies limited by guarantee (like some community organizations or charities). Corporate law deals with companies that are incorporated or registered under the corporate or company law of a sovereign state or their sub-national states.
The defining feature of a corporation is its legal independence from the shareholders that own it. Under corporate law, corporations of all sizes have separate legal personality, with limited or unlimited liability for its shareholders. Shareholders control the company through a board of directors which, in turn, typically delegates control of the corporation’s day-to-day operations to a full-time executive. Shareholders’ losses, in the event of liquidation, are limited to their stake in the corporation, and they are not liable for any remaining debts owed to the corporation’s creditors. This rule is called limited liability, and it is why the names of corporations end with “Ltd.“. or some variant such as “Inc.” or “plc“).
Under almost all legal systems[which?] corporations have much the same legal rights and obligations as individuals. In some jurisdictions, this extends to allow corporations to exercise human rights against real individuals and the state, and they may be responsible for human rights violations. Just as they are “born” into existence through its members obtaining a certificate of incorporation, they can “die” when they lose money into insolvency. Corporations can even be convicted of criminal offences, such as corporate fraud and corporate manslaughter.